Friday, May 11, 2012

郑和的后代

2012年春季,中国有超过3亿人口“大迁徙”,回家的路途很遥远,火车、公车、翻山、走路,有些全程要数十小时。回家的心情是我们小小岛国,等多十分钟地铁都嫌太长,争分夺秒的群体所难以体会的。

中国境内的春节大迁徙摆到国际版图上,等于移民。中国历史上有三次走向东南亚的移民潮。第一次可以追溯到15世纪,郑和下西洋的时候,第二次是鸦片战争前后,第三次是二十世纪前半叶。

印尼第四任总统瓦希德(Abdurranhman Wahid)宣称,他的先祖陈金汉是中国晋江人,原为伊斯兰教长老,在明朝永乐十五年(公元1417年)随郑和第五次下西洋时,辗转到印尼传道,繁衍至今。瓦希德还曾返故乡寻根。

瓦希德说:“我的祖先从晋江迁移到南方属国占婆(占城,二至十七世纪越南中南部古国),今天柬埔寨的金磅逊。我的祖先有个成员的一个妹妹成为一位公主,她被派往满者伯夷(十三至十六世纪印尼古国),与该国木代国王巴拉威耶五世结婚。”

(明茅元仪编武备志。
占城国、暹罗国、满勒加、淡马锡、苏门答腊巨港、爪哇国、印度古里国等。)

在印尼的两亿余人口中,华人约占六百万,只有百分之三。别小看3%的人口,印尼是大中华圈--中港台以外华人人数最多的国家。2001119日,瓦希德宣布华人农历新年为公共假期,但只属于印尼华人,不是全国假期,内藏玄机,离不开经济实力日渐鼎盛的中国。无论如何,经历过排华的风风雨雨,踏入公元21世纪,印尼华人能够名正言顺地庆祝华人新年,算是郑和下西洋六百年后,华人人数最多的回教国家向前迈进的里程碑。

印尼三宝垄 Semarang是以三宝太监郑和命名的城市。郑和下西洋曾数次经过爪哇岛,三宝垄的华人为郑和立庙祭祀,把他当作三宝垄的保护神来祀奉。

印尼三宝垄 Semarang是以三宝太监郑和命名的城市 )

六百年前郑和七下西洋,他千帆竞渡的船队,完成波澜壮阔的远航的壮举,成为世界永远的记忆。这六百年前的光荣与梦想,成为西洋永不磨灭的风景。

不过郑和下西洋,影响至深的还是马六甲。马六甲在中国的眷顾下,摆脱满者伯夷和暹罗的纠缠,全心全力发展成东西方海上交通枢纽。郑和在马六甲河北岸设立官厂(货仓),所在地就在今天的马六甲古城区,郑和文化馆(Lorong Hang Jebat,陈达生筹建,2006年开幕)就在古城区内。郑和下西洋也促成公元15世纪马六甲苏丹和明朝公主汉丽宝(也有传言说是宫女)的一段异国姻缘。早期的三宝山用来埋葬郑和船队中不幸在异乡死亡的船员,结合了三宝山下三宝庙和汉丽宝水井,后代的娘惹与峇峇,串联成一个温馨的历史故事。


(马六甲河边的郑和馆和隔邻的和记饭园记所在地有大量明朝的出土文物,相信是当年的官厂所在地。)

(三宝山下三宝庙)

(三宝庙内汉丽宝水井)

郑和是明代伟大的航海家,外交家和军事家,或许他也是最出色的CEO

郑和原姓马,小字三保。1371年生于现在的云南省晋宁县昆阳镇。洪武十四年(1381),明太祖朱元璋为扫清云南梁王这股元朝的残余势力,调集30万大军进攻云南。两年后明军回京,经过昆阳时,把在滇池边玩耍的12岁的小郑和(马和)与他的伙伴抓到南京。郑和在明朝的皇宫里被阉割后做内宫太监。

郑和从默默无闻晋升为皇帝近身,明成祖朱棣赐姓“郑”。1405年郑和34岁,受朱棣委托,率领当时世界上最大的船队,从南京龙江港启航,经太仓出海,七次出使西洋,历时28载。郑和每次远航,船队有两百多艘,随行人员两万七千多人,铺天盖地而来。

郑和是个历史人物,三宝公也成为受当地人敬仰祭祀的神话人物。梁启超称郑和为“并时而兴的海上巨人”,孙中山称郑和下西洋为“超前轶后之奇举”。郑和远航,比西方著名航海家哥伦布(Christopher Columbus)、麦哲伦(Ferdinand Magellan)早半个多世纪,开创了中国通往亚非30多个国家和地区的海上丝路。

(模拟的马六甲岸外的郑和舰队)

(模拟的马六甲郑和官厂的繁华)

(官厂就在马六甲河畔,今天的古城区)

关于马六甲官厂,郑和随团通事(通译员)马欢在《瀛涯胜览》中描述:

凡中国宝船到彼,则立排栅如城垣,设四门更鼓楼,夜则提铃巡警。内又立重栅如小城,盖造库藏仓廒,一应钱粮顿在其内。去各国船只回到此处取齐,打整番货,装载船内,等候南风正顺,于五月中旬开洋回还。


1433年,郑和62岁,经历过将近一半的海上人生,来不及回到中国,在另一个文明古国印度古里病逝。郑和是否喜欢这种半生流浪的生活?又或者“出发是我的还乡,漂泊是我的家园”?郑和快乐吗?

(郑和画像)

郑和有后代吗?郑和的长兄马文铭把他的长子马恩来过继给郑和,马恩来后来改姓郑。郑恩来生了两个儿子,一个是郑万显,一个是郑庭显,子孙后代就不断沿袭下来。目前在世界上郑和的后裔有三支:云南玉溪和昆阳;江苏南京;泰国清迈,人们称为“三支四地”,总人数约400多人。

(郑和在云南的后裔。2010)

已故的郭宝昆先生的代表作《郑和的后代》曾经多次搬上舞台。郭宝昆说:“现代人也越来越自我意识到得与失的脖论。没有失去,就没有得到。得到的是什么,也必然失去的是什么?郑和可以是我们现代人的审查对象,郑和是一盏灯。”

《郑和的后代》并不真是指跟郑和有血缘关系的后代。从广义的层次来看,我们的祖先随着郑和舰队漂洋过海来到了南洋,1435年明朝恢复海禁,禁止民间与海外交往,使到我们的祖先有家归不得,从此落地生根,过了好多代,其中一个家族缔造了印尼第四任总统瓦希德。瓦希德为某种原因寻根,认定是先祖陈金汉的后人,更多人则与当地人融成一体,世世代代后,其实已经无根可寻,就像郑和一生都活在无“根”的世界中。

(印尼第四任总统(1999-2001)瓦希德Abdurranhman Wahid,认定是先祖陈金汉的后人。
陈金汉随郑和第五次下西洋。

人们在肯定哥伦布发现新大陆的时候,却忽略了印第安人的血泪。我们今天重新认识的郑和,不仅仅是一个伟大的航海家,他留下了一份伟大的精神遗产,这个遗产就是要天下共享太平之福,而不是把快乐强加在别人的痛苦上。

郑和在事业上平步青云,除了被明成祖赐姓“郑”外,还被钦点七下西洋,但他得了“姓”却失去了“性”。 有了事业,却没了“根”,这风光伟业是人们所向往的吗?郑和的后半生,穿梭在繁忙的海上,成就卓越,但是他真正寻找的是什么?得到的是什么?

附记(11 Jul 2012 联合早报,林冠雄,“民主是个好东西”):

在中国明代,明成祖朱棣发动“靖难之变”,起兵抢夺他侄儿建文帝的皇位,事成之后,他要文学博士(官名),著名学者方孝孺草拟即位诏书,方孝孺拒绝了他的要求之后,明成祖就灭了方孝儒的十族(九族加上学生),死者多达数百人。

9 comments:

Muhammad Dawud said...

Hi.. I'm dawud from Indonesia, I would like to ask about the reference of this paragraph "瓦希德说:“我的祖先从晋江迁移到南方属国占婆(占城,二至十七世纪越南中南部古国),今天柬埔寨的金磅逊。我的祖先有个成员的一个妹妹成为一位公主,她被派往满者伯夷(十三至十六世纪印尼古国),与该国木代国王巴拉威耶五世结婚。"

....... said...

Mr Dawud,

You may refer to Mr Wahid's speech when he became President, 泉州历史,梅溪陈氏族谱and etc. These were reported in Singapore's newspapers back then.

For online reporting, the following websites provide good summary.

http://baike.baidu.com/view/399457.htm?force=1

http://bbs.chens.org.cn/showtopic.asp?TOPIC_ID=5632&Forum_id=54&page=

http://www.chinanews.com/gj/gj-yt/news/2009/12-31/2048872.shtml

http://www.qzwb.com/gb/content/2004-12/21/content_1471987.htm

For books:
Barton, Greg. Abdurrahman Wahid: Muslim Democrat, Indonesian President. Sydney: University of New South Wales Press. 2002. ISBN 978-0-86840-405-9.

From Abdurrahman Addakhil to Gus Dur (Indonesian). Surya Online. 31 December 2009

Muhammad Dawud said...

waw.. thanks a lot mr? what shoud I call you :D

Muhammad Dawud said...

what does this text means in english: "与该国木代国王巴拉威耶五世结婚"?
according to this site: http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/9/12/31/n2772269.htm Mr. 瓦希德 is the descendant of 陳阿洛 & 陳金漢

but, do you know who is the name of the mother of 陳英華 & 陳阿洛? is it the same person with the girl who was sent to majapahit on behalf of the king of champa?

Muhammad Dawud said...


who, I would like to reprhase my last two questions, you may delete my last two questions sir,
according to this site: http://www.epochtimes.com/b5/9/12/31/n2772269.htm, Mr. 瓦希德 is descendant of 陳阿洛 & 陳金漢. 陳阿洛 is the little sister of 陳英華. I have several question, cause I'm so confused by inconsistencies among many sites, who is sent princess of 占城 to majapahit, is it 阇耶僧伽跋摩五世? Who is the mother of 陳英華, there are many sources that mention "princess of 占城" but I don't know her chinese name? then who is the husband of princess of 占城, is it 满者伯夷王维克拉马法哈纳? finally who is the father of princess of 占城, is it 彭德庆, cause 彭德庆 is mentioned many times that he is an islam trader from 占城..

....... said...

《亚洲周刊》 (Yazhou Zhoukan, directly translated as“Asia Weekly”)20-26 December 1999 edition reported an interview with Mr Wahid:

“我的祖先陈金汉是新疆回教徒,他后来迁移到中国南方属国占婆…他居住的村子和附近地区如今都是回教徒。我想我的家族都是这个祖宗后裔。陈金汉到了满者伯夷,后来娶了一位公主的女儿。他一个兄弟的阿拉伯姓名是Abdul Patah,中文译名是Tan Eng Huat,我不知道叫什么。”

In English,

“Mr Wahid said he found that his ancestor Tan Kim Han was an Islam from Xinjiang, China. He moved to Champa(占婆)later on. The village and vicinity nearby are Muslim today. Mr Wahid believed he was closely knitted with them.
Tan Kim Han married a princess daughter in Majapahit. Tan Kim Han had a brother Tan Eng Huat also known as Abdul Patah. ”

Comparing the Yazhou Zhoukan’s interview and what was written in 《大纪元》cited by you, Tan Eng Huat and Tan Eng Hua(陳英華)may be the same person.

As for彭德庆, he was a planner working for the Champa government. He was engaged by Zhenghe to plan and implement trade policy with Southeast Asia. Java benefited a lot from the spice trade with China then.

KL

Muhammad Dawud said...

hm.. well.. thanks a lot for your responses mr :D
if you would like to know why I'm very eager to trace to origin of princess 占婆, cause 陳英華 is my 13rd grand pa above me, here is my family genealogy file, raden patah is listed on cell B31, and my name in cell B1020: https://www.dropbox.com/s/od2c9bahtq1lcmh/SILSILAH%20BANI%20MUCHSIN2.xlsx

....... said...

Mr Dawud,

My greatest respect to you for capturing such a comprehensive genealogy. The trace is even up to Majapahit Kingdom era. What a 700 hundred years of history!

From cell B1020 and B1021, at least I know now that you have two sibling including yourself, and perhaps the Indonesia President in time to come.

Don't forget to allow me to visit your presidential office by then. :)

KL

Muhammad Dawud said...

Mr..
ah, I didn't capture the genealogy, I got the file from my other family, there were a pennsylvanian Mr. Stephen Headley (headleystephen89@gmail.com, stephen.headley@wanadoo.fr) who study the lineage, he published his works in http://journal.uinjkt.ac.id/index.php/studia-islamika/article/view/780

:D the tan eng hwa descendants are scattered across indonesia, my family is just an ordinary family :-), not an aristocracy who reside in presidential office :D