Tuesday, November 26, 2013

缅甸英雄:翁山淑枝25年前的演说Speech to a Mass Rally at the Shwedagon Pagoda (二之二)

25年前的演说是人生的转捩点

1988年是翁山淑枝人生的转捩点。1988826日,翁山淑枝第一次在仰光面对百万群众发表演说。演讲前夕,政府散播有关要刺杀她的谣言,但她处变不惊,在集会上穿着一身雪白的长裙,慷慨激昂地说道“缅甸正在发生的民族危机完全可以看作是缅甸正在争取第二次独立。作为我父亲的女儿,我不能将这一切视若无睹。” 言词间充分显示巾帼不让须眉的气概,令在场的民众想起了她的父亲缅甸独立之父翁山将军。对站在一旁的丈夫迈克尔而言,他知道他的妻子已经全心全意投入缅甸的民主运动,他即将失去他的妻子。

1988826日,翁山淑枝第一次在仰光面对百万群众发表演说。

翁山淑枝并不喜欢政治,她更想读书写作,但从那一刻起,翁山淑枝不再是一名旁观者。 “我参加了,就不能半途而废。”从此,翁山淑枝这个外表柔弱、身材单薄的女子,因为深深觉得自己的根必须扎在缅甸的土地上,她把焦点集中在延伸父亲和祖国的历史,成了军政府最头疼的人物。


民主与独裁



翁山淑枝是民主的斗士,民主的反面是独裁,最近在导览中跟来自香港姓冯的一家子较深入地切入此话题。冯氏兄弟认为香港选港督,梁振英上台是由八百人代表全香港把他捧上去,根本没有民主可言,新加坡的体系则健全得多。我们把视野放宽,以东南亚为例,菲律宾是一个民主政权的国家,但是民主化之后问题悬而未决,执政者的短视、在野党不合作、人民跟不上政治的步伐或者走在太前端等,都加剧社会的压力。如果以选票来代表民主,中国绝对没有民主,但是中国共产党内有另一套投选领导人的机制,在这套机制下,习近平和李克强取代了胡锦涛和温家宝,他们是不是适当的人选?如果是由民间投选的话,会不会是前重庆市委薄熙来和他的夫人上台?孰优孰劣?

至于新加坡式的民主,有以一重量级人马来携带其他四人进入国会的集选区,有只赢得60%全国选票,却占据90%国会议席,组织政府的政党,邻国马来西亚也是类似的情形。因此,何谓民主?我们要争取的是什么模式的民主?

冯爸爸和冯妈妈的观点则比较直接,只要人民生活得好,安居乐业,独裁、中国式或是民主模式都没有分别。

不过,如前常任秘书严祟涛在《A Mandarin and the Making of Public Policy: Reflections by Ngiam Tong Dow》一书所说:
看看希腊历史里的两大城邦,斯巴达(Sparta)与雅典(Athens)。新加坡就像斯巴达……虽然制度的起点是用人唯贤(meritocracy),但结果却是独裁与精英主义。独裁者如果能干,那一切都好,不然,整个国家便会崩溃……

雅典则以思想活跃与多元闻名于世……在历史长河中,只有雅典存活下来,斯巴达很早已被淡忘。这个故事,对我们的言论管制有甚么启示?…… 要以尚武、社会管理井然有序与高效,但最终仅余历史碎片的斯巴达为榜样? 还是混乱、没有秩序、民众好辩、“不和谐”,但长留世人心中的雅典?

纵观世界案例,民主政体与独裁政治都无法免疫,但独裁制度的病症确定比民主政体严重得多。英国二战时期的首相丘吉尔说得好:“民主是最差的政府形式——除了所有其他不断地被试验过的政府形式之外。”

至于将人生的下半场奉献给缅甸议会民主的翁山淑枝在25年前对群众说了什么?我尝试将翁山淑枝的英文翻译版转译成中文。


翁山淑枝在1988826日的演说:中文版(李国樑翻译)



争取民主是众人的愿望



各位僧侣和人民,这个公众集会是要将我们人民的意愿传达给全世界。因此,在这个大规模的集会我们必须表现出我们是有纪律和团结的。我们的目的是要表明我们全体人民乐意接受多政党民主制度的政府机制。

是学生为我们铺平了举行今天这样的集会的道路。学生在近期的示威行动,将不可能化为可能;他们甚至做得更多,已经通过行动表明为了民主,他们愿意牺牲自己的生命。因此,我要求大家默哀一分钟,以表示我们最深刻的敬意。这些学生失去了他们的生命,让我们为他们的感人事迹默哀,在这一分钟的时间,请完全保持安静。

我相信所有聚集在这里的人都是没有一个例外的,是为了争取多党民主制度这个不可动摇的愿望。为了达到这个目标,所有的人都应该团结有序的向民主的目标前进。

为什么我要投身缅甸民主的斗争


在这方面,我想向大家解释我在这场运动中做过什么。因为有相当多的人不十分了解我的个人历史,这个解释是有必要的。不认识我的人都希望能够对我多一些了解,这是很自然的。

有些人说,我大部分时间都在国外,我和一个外国人结婚,我可能不熟悉缅甸这个国家的政治分歧。在今天这个集会上,我想非常坦率和公开的谈一谈。确实,我在国外生活;确实,我嫁给了一个外国人,但是这些事实从未干扰或减少我对我的国家的爱和奉献。

一些人一直在讨论的另一件事是,我对缅甸的政治一无所知。麻烦的是,我知道得太多。我的家人都知道缅甸的政治是多么复杂棘手,我的父亲不得不忍受这种常态,这是他在面对缅甸的政治上不得不花费很多精神和体力的原因,但他并不谋取私利,这就是为什么我的父亲说,一旦缅甸获得独立,他不希望继续参与这种强权政治。

既然我的父亲没有这样的意愿,我也一直想将自己跟这种强权政治保持距离,正因为如此,我一直远离政治。有些人可能会问,既然我希望远离政治,为什么现在却参与这项促进民主的进程。答案是,目前我们正在面对着整个国家必须关注的危机,缅甸正在发生的民族危机完全可以看作是缅甸正在争取第二次独立。作为我父亲的女儿,我不能将这一切视若无睹。

这场伟大的斗争来自人民强烈的、深切的期望,期待一个完全民主的议会制政府。

我想让你听听我父亲所说的民主: 

我们必须使民主成为人民的信约,我们必须按照这样的信约,建立一个自由的缅甸。如果我们不能做到这一点,我们的人民都必将受到影响。如果民主失败,整个世界只会在一旁袖手旁观,缅甸就会像日本和德国,受人鄙视。民主是唯一与自由一致的理想,这也是一个促进和平、强化和平的理想。因此,民主这个唯一的思想意识正是我们奋斗的目标。

军人与人民之间的裂痕


说到团结,我想说一件事。有些人可能不喜欢我说的话,但我相信我的职责是告诉人们我相信是真实的事。因此,我要说出我的想法,如果我的想法是你所认同的,请支持我;如果它们是不能接受的,我也无能为力,我只是在做我认为是正确的。我想说的是,在这个时候人民和军队之间有某种程度的纠纷,这裂痕可能会导使国家的未来岌岌可危目前缅甸的军队是由我的父亲创建和培育的,这是我的父亲建立起来的军队,这是事实,这些是我父亲亲手勾画出应该如何组织并建立军队的详细书面文件。那么,我的父亲对军队有什么目标呢让我读出其中一段:

军队是为了这个国家和人民建立的,这样一支部队必须是荣誉和受人尊重的。相反的,如果军队引人憎恨,那么建立这支军队的目标将是徒劳的。

让我坦率地说,我对军队感受强烈,充满依恋之情;军队不仅建立了我的父亲,作为一个孩子,我也受到士兵的照顾。与此同时,我也感受到人民对我的父亲的大爱和亲切,我很感激这份爱意和亲情。因此,我不希望看到我父亲和热爱我父亲的人民所建立的军队有任何的分裂和斗争,我也要求军人们以理解和同情来回报人民。我呼吁军队成为一支人们可以信任和依赖的部队,一支能够维护我们国家的荣耀和尊严的军队。

和平、团结、纪律


我们应该尝试忘记已经发生的事,我想呼吁人民不要失去自己对军队的感情,唯有团结前进,建立一个强大而持久的联盟,我们才能达到我们的目标。我们还没有实现这一个目标,我们不要被打乱。因此,让我们下定决心,团结一致,朝我们珍贵的目标前进。在这个过程中,请用和平的方式,如果一个人或一个国家能通过纪律与和平的方式来达到他们的目标,这将是一个最光荣、最令人钦佩的成就。

我要说的是,学生们已经在这项全国性的运动中走在最前端。学生是最有能力的,他们已经用自己的肉体来证明自己的勇气,我相信他们现在正在展示他们的道德和精神魄力。我呼吁学生们通过团结与决心继续向前迈进。目前我们有好些学生群体,我想呼吁这些学生团体成立一个统一的组织,大家走在一起。我知道他们很快就要召开一次会议来达到这个目的,如果这个场面出现,我祈求它是一个团结同学的凝聚力。

有些同学问我,有哪些政客站在我的身后,他们担心这些政客可能会操纵我,然后接管学生。我很高兴学生们如此开放,向我开诚布公。年轻人是坦率和不故弄玄虚的。我如实回答,我身后没有政客,我试图做的是贡献一份力量来实现民主制度。为了实现这个政治体系,有一些资深的政治家希望以各种方式来协助我。我已经告诉这些政客,如果他们的目的是为了获得政治权力和地位,我是不会以任何方式来支持他们的。我向出席这次大会的所有人保证,如果这些政客试图获得政治权力地位,我会毫不迟疑地谴责他们。

这一代人的鸿沟由这一代来填平


我也发觉到这一代人和年轻一代之间有一道鸿沟,这道鸿沟必须衔接起来。老一代和年轻一代都感觉到彼此间想要撇开对方,这是不应该发生的事情,无论是年轻人还是年老的一辈,大家都应该团结起来。

人民的力量与日俱增,这样不断壮大的实力必须受到纪律的约束,不受约束和不遵守正确的原则的力量绝对不会带来有效的成果,相反的,它可能会引起许多不良的局面。因此,请按照合法正确的原则来继续展示我们的实力。在这个时刻,人民的力量几乎达到高峰,我们更应该小心谨慎,不要欺压弱势群体,这是一种邪恶的做法,这将导致人们失去他们的尊严和荣誉。人们应该清楚而明确地展示自己具备原谅容忍的能力。

如果我们要探讨人民的愿望和他们在此时此刻真正的要求,答案就是多党民主制。我们要摆脱一党制。关于此事,总统貌貌博士说,他正在召开紧急党代表大会,以决定​​是否应该有一个全国公投。我不认为这次公投是有必要的,整个国家人民的愿望和诉求是非常清楚的。毫无疑问,每个人都想多党民主制度的政府。目前政府的职责是尽快带来这样的政治体系。

人民应该继续通过和平和纪律的方式来表达我们的诉求。我再次强调,我们还没有达到我们追崇的目标。请大家先想想应该做些什么来巩固一个联盟,请想想国家的未来,除非我们认为我们不可能通过循序渐进来实现国家的未来,为国家带来好处。我父亲说,我们的人民一定要遵守纪律,我们不可能不断重复这句话来提醒大家。


和平改革势在必行


我们不需要公投,我们需要的是一个多党制,尽快推行自由和公正的选举。人们已经对政府失去了他们的信心。如果需要成立一个临时政府来举行自由和公正的选举,那我们就应该建立这样一个先驱。其主要目的不是要目前的形式的政府,也不是一个临时政府或其他的新政府。我们要的是一个可以使缅甸强大、繁荣、团结的政府。请不要失去主要目标,也不要忘记国家未来的福泽,如果我们忽略这些,眼前的胜利将导致未来的失败。

我们目前处于什么阶段呢?我们所珍惜的目标显然已在视线之内,让我们一起实现这一个目标。我们不能有丝毫的的意见分歧,这是很重要的,学生之间绝对不应该出现意见分歧,大家应该克制。如果学生之间出现分歧,将会损害到国家未来的团结。

既然我谈到团结,我要说说缅甸作为一个国家应该如何团结起来。不同族群的缅甸人民也应该保持团结。当然,缅甸大多数人口仍然是缅甸族,他们必须不断努力,缔造一个友好的生活环境,并实现急切需要的国家种族群体之间的团结和友谊。

那些拥有强大力量的人民应当对较弱势的群体表现出克制和宽容。在这里,我想说说关于那些支持一党制的人。事实上许多缅甸社会主义纲领党员已经对这个政党失去了信念和信心,这些党员应该退党,交出他们的党证。

至于那些继续坚持缅甸社会主义纲领党的信念的人,他们不应该被调戏。民主是一种思想,让每个人根据他的信仰站起来,他们不应该受到威胁或濒临灭绝。每个人应该朝自己的目标向前迈进,不要因为你有更强大的力量而对那些实力较弱的人报复。

我们已远远超出了预定的时间,所以我一定要长话短说。我希望我们的集会能够保持团结与纪律,我们的力量应该使用在正确的地方。只有通过遵守这些要领,我们才能够找到我们的目标。

愿我们的人民团结和遵守纪律。愿我们的人民永远做出完全符合应有的原则的事。愿我们的人民免受伤害。

最后,我想重申我们强烈的诉求,们没有公投的想法,我们要的是解散一党制,建立一个多党制的政治体系,我们要尽快举行自由和公平的选举。这些都是我们的要求。

四分之一个世纪后

翁山淑枝的演说,如果以20个字来总结,就是“团结、纪律、和平、军人做军人该做的受人尊敬的事。”

在经过许多年的奋斗,付出了无数人的血泪牺牲后,今天的缅甸人民终于迎来了实现全面和解,走向民主自由的新希望。翁山淑枝,是缅甸第二次独立,永垂不朽的名字!


(2012年5月2日国会补选,翁山素枝获胜,在下议院宣誓就职。图片来源:路透社)

Speech to a Mass Rally at the Shwedagon Pagoda
26 August 1988
Aung San Suu Kyi

The following is the English translation prepared by the author of the speech she delivered in Burmese to a mass rally on the open ground west of the great Shwedagon Pagoda in Rangoon on 26 August 1988. Of the approximately one thousand public addresses she calculated she had given throughout the length and breadth of Burma between August 1988 and July 1989, this was the first and the only one for which she had prepared text to hand. Two days earlier she had made a brief appearance in front of the Rangoon General Hospital, the main focus of popular demonstra­tions at the time, in order to announce her intention to address the rally and to call for discipline and unity.

Reverend monks and people! This public rally is aimed at informing the whole world of the will of the people. Therefore at this mass rally the people should be disciplined and united to demonstrate the very fact that they are a people who can be disciplined and united. Our purpose is to show that the entire people entertain the keenest desire for a multi-party democratic system of government.

It is the students who have paved the way to the present situation where it is possible to hold such a rally. The occasion has been made possible because the recent demonstrations have been spearheaded by the students and even more because they have shown their willingness to sacrifice their lives. I therefore request you all to observe a minute's silence in order to show our deepest respect for those students who have lost their lives and, even more, in order to share the merit of their deeds among all of us. So while doing this please keep perfect silence for the duration of one minute.

I believe that all the people who have assembled here have without exception come with the unshakeable desire to strive for and win a multi-party democratic system. In order to arrive at this objective, all the people should march unitedly in a disciplined manner towards the goal of democracy.

In this connection I would like to explain the part I have played in this movement. This is needed because a fair number of people are not very well acquainted with my personal history. It is only natural and right that those who do not know me would like to know some facts.

A number of people are saying that since I have spent most of my time abroad and am married to a foreigner I could not be familiar with the ramifications of this country's politics. I wish to speak from this platform very frankly and openly to the people. It is true that I have lived abroad. It is also true that I am married to a foreigner. These facts have never interfered and will never interfere with or lessen my love and devotion for my country by any measure or degree.

Another thing which some people have been saying is that I know nothing of Burmese politics. The trouble is that I know too much. My family knows best how complicated and tricky Burmese politics can be and how much my father had to suffer on this account. He expended much mental and physical effort in the cause of Burma's politics without personal gain. That is why my father said that once Burma's independence was gained he would not want to take part in the kind of power politics that would follow.

Since my father had no such desire I too have always wanted to place myself at a distance from this kind of politics. Because of that I have kept away from politics. Some might then ask why, if I wished to stay out of politics, should I now be involved in this movement. The answer is that the present crisis is the concern of the entire nation. I could not as my father's daughter remain indifferent to all that was going on. This national crisis could in fact be called the second struggle for national independence.

This great struggle has arisen from the intense and deep desire of the people for a fully democratic parliamentary system of government. I would like to read to you something my father said about democracy.

We must make democracy the popular creed. We must try to build up a free Burma in accordance with such a creed. If we should fail to do this, our people are bound to suffer. If democracy should fail the world cannot stand back and just look on, and therefore Burma would one day, like Japan and Germany, be despised. Democracy is the only ideology which is consistent with freedom. It is also an ideology that promotes and strengthens peace. It is therefore the only ideology we should aim for.

That is what my father said. It is the reason why I am participating in this struggle for freedom and democracy in the footsteps and traditions of my father. To achieve democracy the people should be united. That is very clear. It is a very plain fact. If there is no unity of purpose we shall be unable to achieve anything at all. If the people are disunited, no ideology or form of government can bring much benefit to the country. This must be firmly fixed in the minds of the people. If there is no discipline, no system can succeed. Therefore our people should always be united and disciplined.

While I am talking about the need for unity I would like to say one thing. Some may not like what I am going to say. But I believe that my duty is to tell the people what I believe to be true. Therefore I shall speak my mind. If my words meet with your approval, please support me. If they are not acceptable, it cannot be helped. I am only doing what I believe to be right. What I wish to say is that at this time there is a certain amount of dissension between the people and the army. This rift can lead to future dangers. The present armed forces of Burma were created and nurtured by my father. It is not simply a matter of words to say that my father built up the armed forces. It is a fact. There are papers written in my father's own hand where he lays out in detail how the army should be organized and built up. So what objectives did my father have for the armed forces? Let me read to you one of them:

The armed forces are meant for this nation and this people, and it should be such a force having the honour and respect of the people. If instead the armed forces should come to be hated by the people, then the aims with which this army has been built up would have been in vain.

Let me speak frankly. I feel strong attachment for the armed forces. Not only were they built up by my father, as a child I was cared for by his soldiers. At the same time I am also aware of the great love and affection which the people have for my father. I am grateful for this love and affection. I would therefore not wish to see any splits and struggles between the army which my father built up and the people who love my father so much. May I also from this platform ask the personnel of the armed forces to reciprocate this kind of understanding and sympathy? May I appeal to the armed forces to become a force in which the people can place their trust and reliance. May the armed forces become one which will uphold the honour and dignity of our country.

For their part the people should try to forget what has already taken place, and I would like to appeal to them not to lose their affection for the army. We shall reach our goal of a strong and lasting Union only if we are all able to go forward in unity. We have not yet achieved this goal. Let us not be disunited. Therefore let us resolve to march forward in unity towards our cherished goal. In doing so please use peaceful means. If a people or a nation can reach their objectives by disciplined and peaceful means, it would be a most honourable and admirable achievement.

I have a few things to say about the students who have been at the forefront of this nationwide movement. The students are most able. They have already demonstrated their physical courage. I believe that they will now go on to demonstrate their moral and mental ability.  May  I  appeal  to the students  to continue  to march forward with the same kind of unity and resolve? At this moment there are a number of student groups. I would like these groups to come together as a unified body. I understand that they are soon going to call a conference for this purpose. Should this occasion arise may I pray that it will result in an entire cohesion and unity of the students.

Some students have asked me which politicians are standing behind me. They are apprehensive that such politicians might manipulate me and then take over the students. I am happy that the students have been so open and honest with me. Young people are frank and free from deviousness. I answered them truthfully. There are no politicians behind me. What I am trying to do is to help achieve the democratic system of government which the people want. For the achievement of this system, there are some veteran politicians who wish to help me in various ways. I have told such politicians that if their object is to obtain positions of political power for themselves, I would not support them in any way. Should these politicians try to obtain positions of political power I promise in front of this assembly of people that I myself will not hesitate to denounce them.

There is a sort of gulf between the older and younger generations. This gulf will have to be bridged. There is the feeling that the older and younger generations are quite apart from each other. This is something that should not happen. Whether young or old the entire people should be united.

The strength of the people is growing day by day. Such growing strength has to be controlled by discipline. Undisciplined strength or strength which is not in keeping with right principles can never lead to a beneficial fruition. It could lead to danger for many. Therefore please continue to use our strength in accordance with rightful principles. At this juncture when the people's strength is almost at is peak we should take extreme care not to oppress the weaker side. That is the kind of evil practice which would cause the people to lose their dignity and honour. The people should demonstrate clearly and distinctly their capacity to forgive.

If we are to examine what it is that we all desire, that is what the people really want at this time, the answer is multi-party democracy. We want to get rid of the one-party system. The President, Dr Maung Maung, has said that he is calling an emergency party congress to decide whether there should be a national referendum. So far as I am concerned I do not think it is necessary to have this referendum. The entire nation's desires and aspirations are very clear. There can be no doubt that everybody wants a multi-party democratic system of government. It is the duty of the present government to bring about such a system as soon as possible.

For the people's part they should continue to demonstrate for this through peaceful and disciplined means. May I emphasize again that we have not yet arrived at our cherished goal. Please think in advance of what should be done to bring about a firmly established Union. Please think of the country's future. Unless we consider the future of our country, the changes that are coming into being may not be able to achieve much benefit for the country. My father said there is a great need for the people to be disciplined and this cannot be repeated too often.

We do not need to have a referendum. What we do need is a multi-party system. It should be introduced as quickly as possible by means of free and fair elections. Conditions necessary for the holding of free and fair elections should be created throughout the country. The people have lost their confidence in the govern­ment of the day. If the holding of free and fair elections requires an interim government, such a forerunner should be created.

The main objective is not to have either the present form of government, nor an interim government, nor to have some other new government, but to have a government that can bring about a strong and prosperous Union of Burma. Please do not lose sight of the main objectives, nor forget the future welfare of the country. Should we lose sight of these, present victories will change to future failures.

What stage have we reached now? Well, our cherished aim is clearly within sight. Let us march forward together towards that goal. Let no divisions creep in. It is important that divisions of opinion should not arise among the students. There should be a complete restraint on creating such divisions. Therefore should differences arise between them now the country's future unity will be jeopardized.

While I am on the subject of unity may I speak for a while on the union of states of which Burma is composed. The different peoples of Burma should also remain united. The majority people of course remain the Burmese. They must strive with ever-increas­ing efforts to live in this accord and amity. Because the Burmese people form the biggest majority, they should make the greatest efforts to live in this accord and amity and to achieve that much needed unity and friendship among national racial groups.

Those who have the greater strength should show restraint and tolerance towards those who have less strength. Here I wish to say one thing regarding those people who are supporting the one-party system. The fact is many members of the Lanzin Party (Burma Socialist Programme Party) have themselves lost faith and confidence in their party. Such party members should resign from the Lanzin Party. They should hand in their party cards.

However, those who continue as members of the Lanzin Party out of conviction should not be molested. Democracy is an ideology that allows everyone to stand up according to his beliefs. They should not be threatened or endangered. Each one should go forward towards his own goal. Do not because of your greater strength be vengeful towards those who are of weaker strength.

We have gone far beyond the intended time, so I must cut this short. The final remark I wish to make is for our rally to maintain unity and discipline. Our strength should be used for the cause of what is right. Only by observing these requirements shall we be able to find our goal.

May the entire people be united and disciplined. May our people always do what is in complete accord with rightful principles. May the people be free from all harm.

To conclude I would like to reiterate our emphatic demands and protests, namely that we have no desire at all for a referendum, that the one-party system should be dismantled, that a multi­-party system of government should be established, and we call for free and fair elections to be arranged as quickly as possible. These are our demands.

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