Friday, July 29, 2022

我的冠病经验 My experience with Covid 19

某个星期六吃过午饭后回家,开始觉得头痛、喉咙微疼、咳嗽、流无色鼻水。虽然体温只是微热37.3度,但比平时高出一度,因此总觉得浑身不自在。味觉和食欲则如常。

快速抗原检测(ART)结果一条线明显如常,15分钟后第二条线若隐若现,中标了。现在的管制方式如流感,卫生部的条例是不需要通报,除非去诊所就医。我觉得症状并不严重,选择自己治疗。若是两年前阻断措施不断更改期间,或许必须困在酒店或是临时病院七八天了。

我的所有病情的感觉都是轻微的,头痛的时候吃两颗班纳杜,半小时后头痛舒缓,体温下降到36.6度。不过ART依然隐隐约约地出现第二条线,药性散后老是维持在37.3度,血压收缩压150Hg,身体总觉得容易累,坐着坐着都会睡着。不过睡眠让身体有自疗康复的机会,每睡一觉总觉得身体好些许。

到了第五天,体温终于正常化,起床时头也不疼了,一晚没咳嗽,喉咙恢复正常,第二条线没了,只是透明的鼻水没停过,持续两星期,血压逐渐恢复正常。

根据诊所的经验,如今的冠病有20大症状,至少30%的病人需要更长的病假,从五天增加到十天。有些有很严重的头痛,肌肉酸痛没力气。

冠病20大症状。图片来源:《新明日报》2022年7月27日
 

是否应该开放?

追溯中标的源头,似乎没什么意义,无罩接触的可能是拳友吗?或是两天前一起吃午餐的朋友?每天坐在公交上,前后左右都是不断咳嗽的乘客,大家肩并肩接触,有时真怀疑口罩的防毒功能。

人必须通过社交来调解心情,久闭成疾,可能比病毒还要可怕,因此我是开放的支持者。中标就当成是为未来增强抵抗力。

 

是否应该打第四针?

防范方面,我打过四针辉瑞(pfizer),也就是接种两针mRNA疫苗后,外加两剂追加剂,分别为202010月,20214月和10月,以及20224月。前三针身体没特别反应,第四针过后觉得特别累,而且持续将近两个月。通常疾走5公里约50分钟,第四针后必须花一个小时,而且总觉得心脏难以负荷,有种心力交瘁的感觉。

不晓得第四针是否削弱身体抵抗力而中标,不过轻微的症状可能归功于疫苗的功效。中标是幸运还是不幸?反正有一得必有一失,世事是很难两全其美的,如果中标也算是一剂,那就是打过五剂,对冠状病毒可说是免疫功能超级版了。

我以自己的经验来回顾父亲睡眠时心脏停止的死因,不晓得第四针是否对他产生负面影响,结果在无症状下去世。不过往者已经安息,一切都已成过去,纯属推测。


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Friday, July 22, 2022

日治时期 柔佛兴楼兴建新昭南模范村

原文刊登于《联合早报》2022623

 

80年前日据时期有切身记忆的老人家已届耋寿之年。96岁的周尚文原乡丰盛港,在麦波申住家以清晰的思路侃侃而谈,他所提供的新线索,为昭南岁月补充一段民间记忆。

 

实施焦土政策

马来亚东海岸面向南中国海,500多公里的海岸线使到防御军力分散。1941128日凌晨,日军第18师在最北部的城市哥打巴鲁抢滩告捷后,军机马上空袭新马城镇。

随着战情的发展,丰盛港一带最有可能是下个登陆点,半天内罗厘将所有居民疏散到峇株巴辖的铁山(Sri Medan)。这里是日本人经营的矿场,矿工抵制日本侵华,丢空的劳工宿舍用来安置难民。

澳军在空城执行焦土政策,摧毁所有重要设施。1942126日,英国最后两艘驱逐舰在丰盛港一带海域跟日本军舰激战落败,日本援军在兴楼登陆。残余的澳军撤退到铁山,由周尚文和纠察队员指路南下。

 

各族人士加入抗日军

周尚文能够以英语沟通,跟在新加坡居住有关。二战前马来亚学生已到新加坡升中学,10多岁的周尚文寄居在嫁到本地的大姐家,上午念英校,晚上读中文。

殖民地政府意识到中国战场对牵制日军的重要性,于是打开支援抗战的方便之门。当时黄埔军校通过中华总商会协助,招募华侨子弟回国受训;南侨机工在陈嘉庚号召下回到祖国运输物资;中国中央海外部部长吴铁城来新加坡宣传抗日,两个月内华侨献金500万叻币。

备战期间政府多管齐下,招募民防部队为防御战做准备,跟罗厘业主签署资源征用协定,囤积米粮时在米袋内撒下大量白灰来保鲜等。

热爱新加坡的各族人士加入新加坡志愿军、星华义勇军和马来军团,私会党徒加入共产党马来亚人民抗日军和国民党华侨抗日军。新加坡沦陷后的大检证,国民党、共产党、义勇军和私会党都成为扫荡敌性华侨的目标。

 

鸦片厂继续生产

日军空袭新加坡当天,学校全面停课,一些城市居民迁往巴耶利峇、碧山亭、波东巴西等乡村避难。周尚文跟着本地念书的马来亚学生赶回乡,未几随大队迁至铁山。

新加坡沦陷三个月后,社会秩序已大致恢复,周尚文因思念母亲回来新加坡,在比必士路(Pepys Road)鸦片厂上班。厂内百多名员工以女工居多,印度入口的生鸦片煮熟后灌入圆形小锡管内就可以包装出售了。这些锡管用厂内的模具制成,容量分为二分、四分与六分(一分约等于一克)。

上世纪40年代的比必士路鸦片厂,女工正在为鸦片加工。(美国威斯康星大学密尔沃基图书馆照片From the American Geographical Society Library, University of Wisconsin Milwaukee Libraries)


几个月后,周尚文在陈桂兰街登上回丰盛港运载树桐的罗厘,加入马来亚人民抗日军,渗入家乡的华侨协会收集情报。当地的华族便衣警员遭抗日军“锄奸队”暗杀,周尚文来往新马的行迹可疑,被带到扣留所严刑拷问,身份险些暴露,只好转入地下活动。

日军政府无法提供新加坡百万居民的食粮,打算将30万人移居他处,于是以富士村为饵,引诱欧亚人和天主教徒迁往森美兰马口(Bahau),华人则到没有日军看守的兴楼建立“新昭南模范村”。周尚文的新任务是动员兴楼的知识分子抗日。

 

模范村有文庆路

19439月,每个星期百多人乘着罗厘前往兴楼,物资则由舯舡载送。战争结束时,模范村有12000多居民。

今年冠病疫情管制松绑后,我们越过长堤取道3号公路,途经哥打丁宜和公路旁强记肉骨茶,来到马威和丰盛港交界。沿着丰盛港海边公路行约20分钟,抵达跟彭亨以河为界的兴楼。全程170公里,约两个半钟。

特别要提到马威和丰盛港交界。1944419日,新加坡华侨协会一行人,跟负责协调日军与华人沟通事务的筱琦护,北上兴楼视察,在此处遭马来亚人民抗日军伏击,商人陈延德、郑尔爱中枪身亡。李俊承(华侨协会副主席)口袋的佛牌挡下子弹而奇迹般生还。

兴楼河畔的甘榜好旺路(J71)便是昔日新昭南模范村的唯一公路“文庆路”,以华侨协会主席林文庆命名,大路两旁的横向乡道由一巷至九巷。纵然斗转星移,仍可想象街头的牛车水天一景茶楼、刘庄记饼家、梁广记饼家、珍珠巴刹面摊等。每隔两三晚,居民在二巷摆地摊,夜暮下煤气灯火特别璀璨。模范村内有酱油厂、木船厂、肥皂厂、椰油厂等供人就业,比铁蹄下过日子轻松得多。

好旺村的洋灰楼和新昭南模范村老木屋并列。

负责建屋的广帮人士,由曾纪辰担任项目经理,在劳明达街经营木业的梁元浩设立火锯厂,参与建造禧街警察局的胡文钊监督工程。

陈笃生的曾孙陈温祥律师(Tan Hoon Siang)醉心于农业,成立模范村三公里外的农业试验场,教导居民种植蔬菜、水稻、畜牧。

前财政部长胡赐道博士的父亲胡载坤医生设立卫生诊所,由陈亚保医生(Dr Chen Ah Poh)和陈笃生的另一位曾孙陈美仪医生(Dr Maggie Lim)驻守。

家族在大坡经营打金店的简二姑带领大家念经诵佛,平安地度过模范村岁月。

 

战争结束的后续

战争结束后,模范村居民纷纷乘车返新。三水婆一贯节俭,套上脱色的红头巾遮阳揩汗,踩着旧轮胎剪成的胶鞋徒步回家。

20多户人家决定落地生根,将模范村易名好旺村,在村子里设立学校。他们的住所集中在Jalan RiaJalan Mahsuri,分别为从前的8巷和9巷,路旁的福德庙和兴业茶餐室成为联络站。

虽然居民不多,村民创建好旺学校,为华小尽一份力。

昔日居民黄至元跟年轻的周尚文分析时局,周尚文因此意识到身边许多同志只是受情绪影响,实际上并不懂得共产主义。战后黄至元出任巴生中华中学校长,1951年在校园内被马共吊死。那个年代本地亦发生过类似事件,譬如副提学司李之华于纽顿电车终站遭开枪刺杀,南洋女中校长刘韵仙在校门外被泼镪水。共事的蓝瑞不认同暴力,走出森林投诚。周尚文深思熟虑后,决定跟组织分道扬镳。

蓝瑞写给滞留在森林里的同志的信函。(摄于新加坡国家博物馆)

午后慵懒的“文庆路”,老木屋略带沧桑,辛酸繁华皆云烟,直叫人百感交集。

新昭南模范村年代的老屋,90多岁的第一代居民马先生,疫情解封后已不见踪影。


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Friday, July 15, 2022

Raising war relief fund - Men's barber trade before and after the Second World War

This article is translated from 李国樑,《理发也筹赈---二战前后的男士理发业published in Lianhe Zaobao, 24 February 2022.


At the beginning of the 21st century, $10 quick cuts were introduced from Japan. Some men hopped in to try out the new trend that turned away from tradition. Today there are no less than 100 echouse, QB House and Kcuts unisex haircutting outlets in Singapore.

The traditional men's 'full course' haircutting takes more than an hour, including shampooing, ear-picking, nose-hair trimming, shaving, facial compresses and shoulder massage. Indian barbershops do not touch the ears or nose, but rather win over customers with their unique technique of 'necks and shoulders loosening'.

In contrast, contemporary fast-cutting shops take only 10 minutes. They are clean, hygienic and do not perform anything additional other than haircuts. They are forcing traditional barbershops to the end of the road in the face of the Covid pandemic.

 

The Fuzhou barber's razor

Before Singapore's independence, the Chinese male hairdressing industry was mainly run by the Hainanese, Cantonese, Henghua and Fuzhou people. There was a popular saying about ‘Fuzhou men’s three knives’: the kitchen knife of a cook, the scissors of a tailor and the razor of a barber.

Through James Lau (a retired civil engineer who managed the OCBC and UOB construction projects), who is in his 80s, recapturing the life of his father, and complemented by recordings and old newspapers, it is possible to retrace the lost time of the yesteryears through the eyes of the men's hairdressing industry.

Growing up in China during the warlord era, Liaw Ching Sing took a boat from Fuzhou to Xiamen and board a steamship to Singapore. He described the Singapore’s street scene as "mostly bullock carts, horse carts and rickshaws". He was 19 years old then.

Not every Fuzhou master brought his special razor skill to the South. Anyway the skill for trimming a man's hair was not too demanding in that era. A pair of steady hands was the key. Liaw passed all  the three levels within a week and served as a full-fledged barber. The first level was to treat a soft drink bottle as a human head, practising until the scissors did not cut the comb and the comb did not touch the glass bottle. The second level was to practise trimming along the inner edge of the bottle. The third level was to master the skills of the razor by shaving own feet until the skin did not turn red or bleeding.

 

Changes before and after the Second World War

In early 20th century, the Cantonese and Hokkien had already established their own barber trade associations. As barbershop owners were also wage earners, memberships of the barber trade associations were  jointly subscribed by owners and workers.

About six months after the founding of the Singapore China Relief Fund Committee (SCRFC), the Hainanese established the Singapore Chinese Barber Association for barbers of all dialect groups. The slogan "no compromise, no surrender, strive to recover all the fallen Chinese lands and achieve national liberation" can be seen in the commemorative photo taken outside the Great Southern Hotel (南天酒楼). It clearly showed that the barbers were just as indignant as the other local Chinese at the time and had never forgotten their national hatred. 

The slogan "no compromise, no surrender, strive to recover all the fallen Chinese lands and achieve national liberation" can be seen in the commemorative photo taken outside the Great Southern Hotel (南天酒楼)

 

After Singapore changed its name to Syonan-to, the Japanese military government ordered the barbers to resume work. The military government selected the best barbershops in terms of size and hygiene as the appointed shops. Liaw’s Nando Barbershop, located in The Arcade opposite the Clifford Pier, was chosen by the military government.

The barbershop was frequented by many Japanese soldiers. They were deployed to other war zones later and Nando became quiet. However, the locals did not want to cross the threshold and preferred to stay away from those appointed shops including Nando.

Nando Barbershop, located in The Arcade opposite the Clifford Pier, was chosen by the military government. Liaw is the 3rd left of the front row


At the end of the Second World War, members of the Malayan People's Anti-Japanese Army (MPAJA) returned to Singapore. Many barbers were MPAJA partisans and played a key role in reshaping the barber trade. Two important reforms were introduced to improve the quality of life for the barbers: Firstly, the opening hours were reduced by four hours from 7am to 5pm, All barbers will have one day off each week.  Obviously, the working hours was much better than before of which only having the Lunar New Year off. Secondly, the monthly salary was replaced by a shared-income system. Considering the owner must pay for the shop rental, utilities and barbering tools, the owner and the staff would split in 30/70, while a poorly equipped barbershop would split in 20/80. If  the owner provided food it would be 50/50.

In 1948 when the Emergency Ordinance was declared in Malaya and Singapore, the joint workers' and employers' associations were ordered to dissolve. The Hokkien Barber Association, of which Liaw was a member, was replaced by the employer-based Singapore Barber Association. As the head of the association, Liaw often spent more time holding meetings, setting rules for the trade and resolving labour disputes than taking up the razor.

 

Fierce competition

In the face of fierce competition, some owners deployed young female barbers to attract customers. For instance, by the time James’ sister was 15 or 16 years old, she was already wielding the scissors with ease and had become the designated hair stylist for many of her regular customers.

According to the Straits Times in 1949, young women accounted for one-third of the approximately 2,000 barbers in Singapore. Indeed, many old thinking had changed after the Second World War and women began to enter the workforce at a rapid pace. Hairdressing, make-up, dressmaking, the police force, schools, offices and rubber factories, all attracting a new generation of women.

In the 1950s, when the barbers could not reach an agreement with their bosses, they often resorted to the tactic of slacking off with the support of workers from all wards. The supporting contingent took turns to crowd the shops, smoking and chitchatting. The bosses were unable to carry out their usual business and more often than not, had to return to the negotiation table.

Some members violated the rules of the barber trade by reducing prices in order to attract customers. When the association failed to persuade the members to stop such practices, secret societies were hired and always proved to be effective.

 

Barbers and cabaret girls join forces to raise war relief funds

In the days of the anti-Japanese relief effort, Liaw teamed up with barbers in the Jalan Besar area to form the China National Liberation Youth Group (中国民族振兴青年团). The main activity was to mobilise young people to sell flowers. Liaw also acted individually in the evenings to punish the "traitors" who sold Japanese goods. Liaw was also one of the key members of the Second Special District of the China Relief Fund Branch. Based at the shophouse on Foch Road, Liaw was working with the Cabaret Girls' Association. The fund raised was particularly impressive due to the presence of the New World cabaret girls and the star-studded sisters Liang Sai Zhen (梁赛珍) and Liang Sai Zhu (梁赛珠).

The Liang sisters were nicknamed the "Shanghai girls". Liang Sai Zhen, the elder sister, became a popular actress in Shanghai at the same time as Ruan Lingyu (阮玲玉). Liang Sai Zhu was introduced to the film industry by her elder sister and acted in the film "The Four Sisters" produced by Lianhua Co.. After the outbreak of the Sino-Japanese War, the two sisters fled to Hong Kong and were subsequently hired as dance hostesses at the New World Cabaret, Singapore. They worked with Huang Feng Yi (黄凤仪), the chairperson of the Singapore Cabaret Girls' Association and the pillar of the New World Cabaret, as well as other dance hostesses such as Chen Yu Lan (陈玉兰) and Hua Yu Lan (花玉兰), to raise funds for the cause, including the auction of dance tickets and jewelry, and charity performances of Cantonese and Peking opera in Singapore, Penang and Kuala Lumpur. The cabaret girls, who worked in the three worlds, were publicly praised by the Acting Chairman of the SCRFC, Tan Ean Kiam, for their "tender heartedness in changing dependency and worthy of the times".

The three sisters: Liang Sai Zhen (梁赛珍) , Liang Sai Zhu (梁赛珠) and Liang Sai Shan (梁赛珊)

 

The patriotic film "Tears of War" (战云情泪), co-starred by Liang Sai Chu, Ng Cho Fan (吴楚帆) and Lu Dun (卢敦) in Hong Kong, was facing several twists and turns in Singapore. Eventually it was allowed to be screened locally at the Overseas Chinese Theatre (Siu Po) and Glorious Theatre (Happy World), as well as Shaw Cinemas' Oriental Theatre (Tai Po) and Atlantic Theatre (Great World). Liang played a part in boosting the popularity of the film for fund raising.

After the fall of Singapore, key members of the Relief Committee were targeted for prosecution. Liaw was imprisoned at the Siong Lim Sawmill Factory next to the Rochor River. Three days later, Liaw took advantage of the fear of transmittable disease of the Japanese Kempeitai and managed to escape by supporting his severely injured comrade, who was nestled in a mass of houseflies on his inflamed wounds. On the other hand, the last steamship, the Imperial Star, supposedly ferrying women and children to Australia, was taken over by gun-wielding runaway soldiers. Failing to board the last ship,  the Liang sisters went into hiding in order to save their own lives.

When the end of Second World War finally dawned, Liang Sai Zhu involved in the charity work of the Xing Hua Orphanage (星华孤儿院) and Liang Sai Zhen became the manager of the Dragon and Phoenix Dance Palace in the Great Southern Hotel. The barber and the New World cabaret girls had never forgotten each other in the midst of the great era.

Friday, July 08, 2022

惹兰勿刹的二战遗址

2022年为新加坡二战沦陷80周年,我为文物局设计一条惹兰勿刹二战遗址路线,并以两场英语,两场华语现场导览,带领参与者穿街走巷,重温二战的历史。疫情管制下,出席者必须使用合力追踪(TraceTogether),处于疫苗接种有效期。每小组限制5人,总人数以20人为限。

集合点为劳明达街出口B,终点在广惠肇留医院,全程约2.4公里。

惹兰勿刹二战遗址路线图
 

一战将领的道路

没有第一次世界大战何来二战?惹兰勿刹有16条以一战的英法将领命名的道路,包括Horne Road, Jellicoe Road, French Road, Penhas Road, King George Avenue, Cavan Road, Hamilton Road, Tyrwhitt Road, Beatty Road, Foch Road, Petain Road, Allenby Road, Plumer Road, Kitchener Road, Maude Road, Townshend Road。这一带是1920年左右开始发展的,当时一战结束不久,官方决定以将领命名,作为战争的记忆。

各道路都以Road)命名,只有乔治王道(King George Avenue)以命名。20世纪的英国乔治王有两位,乔治王道纪念的乔治王(五世)乃英女王伊丽莎白(二世)的曾祖父。乔治王(五世)向德国宣战,在法国检阅军队时从马上摔下来后无法痊愈,加上烟瘾成性,一生为疾病所困。伊丽莎白女王(二世)的父亲乔治王(六世),1938年三巴旺军港启用的船坞King George VI Dock以他命名。

乔治王道(King George Avenue
 

胡文钊路

翰密顿路(Hamilton Road)俗称胡文钊路,不过官方正式命名的胡文钊路(Woo Mon Chew Road)在勿洛南,附近还有纪辰道(Kee Sun Avenue)。日据时期,曾纪辰和胡文钊分别担任广惠肇留医院的正副主席,维持留医院的运作。二战结束后,胡文钊出任主席,负责战后重建的工作。胡文钊在翰密顿路建立两栋石屎楼(洋灰楼, 3-118-30),他的广和隆建筑公司和住家都在这里,他的孙女在此处居住至80年代。日军投下炸弹时,这些石屎楼成为街坊的避难所。胡文钊为避难的街坊提供食物,大家感恩于心,因此将此路以胡文钊命名。禧街警察局是胡文钊所承包的建筑工程之一。

翰密顿路(Hamilton Road)俗称胡文钊路

新中国汽水公司National Aerated Water Co)于1929年在翰密顿路设厂,以鲜拿果(Sinalco)和吉家宝(Kickapoo)闻名。鲜拿果乃德国配方,由橙、柠檬、黑莓、覆盆子、草莓、黄梨等水果调制;吉家宝则是混合葡萄柚、柑橘、酸甘的美国配方。日据时期被令继续运作,受管制的白糖由军政府供应。

翰密顿路和贺恩路(Horne Road)交界处的圣三一堂(Holy Trinity Church)是座以华族建筑物常用的青瓦建成的福州圣公会堂,创建时坐落在已被拆除的红砖图书馆原址。1941年现教堂落成不久便遇上二战,教会所依赖的外国经济援助被完全切断,不得不学会自力更生,自给自足。

 

贝当:从英雄到“叛国”

贝当路(Petain Road)的贝当是位最具争议性的人物。一战期间,贝当出任法国总司令跟德国军对抗,成为一名民族英雄。战后法国的军力每况愈下,二战时已经无法跟纳粹德国抗衡。贝当临危受命为法国总理,贝当奉命组织内阁,隔天下令停火,向入侵的德军签署停战协定,成为傀儡总理,因此背下卖国贼罪名。贝当亦跟日本签下条约,允许日本在中南半岛扎军,作为侵略东南亚的军事基地。

贝当路(Petain Road

战争结束后,贝当因叛国罪受审,被法庭判处死刑。临时总统戴高乐(Charles De Gaulle)对此审判提出批评,将法庭的判决改为终身监禁,理由是贝当已经是名80多岁的老人,他在一战的战功显赫。10年前,本地的法国居民与前联合国巡回大使许通美教授建议政府将贝当路改名,最后不了了之。

 

惹兰勿刹体育场与维多利亚学校

国家体育场落成前,本地重要的足球赛事都在惹兰勿刹体育场进行。惹兰勿刹体育场是该地区的检证集合点之一。这里不只是1850岁的男性,连妇女和小孩都必须检证。超过240名男士被运往丹那美拉和樟宜海边集体杀害。

惹兰勿刹体育场

体育场旁的维多利亚学校用作临时拘留所。维多利亚学校出了三位新加坡总统:尤索夫(Yusof bin Ishak),蒂凡那(CV Devan Nair),纳丹(SR Nathan)。

维多利亚学校

 

茂德路

茂德路(Maude Road)至梧槽河畔俗称松林板厂,它是河畔最大的工厂,林文庆的妻舅殷雪村乃成立股东之一。这一带的梧槽河又名结霜桥,名字来自河边的冰厂(Singapore Ice Work),锯木后的木屑附在冰块上就是环保的绝缘体了。检证时期,松林板厂是另一个临时扣留所。根据该区筹赈会要员之一廖清醒的口述历史,他就是被囚禁在此,三天后利用宪兵害怕传染病,扶着全身都是苍蝇的伤患逃脱的。

茂德路(Maude Road)至梧槽河畔俗称松林板厂

二战前,茂德路75B(75号三楼是间车仔馆,也就是人力车夫居住的估俚间。李光耀就是在此处躲藏,捡回一命的。话说拉车夫高长古从福清来到新加坡,在车仔馆住宿,后来到诺福路(Norfolk Road)李光耀家里当车夫,负责接送他的三个弟妹上学放学。日据时期高长古和李光耀前往惹兰勿刹接受检证,结果高长古获释,李光耀则被令跟一群年轻人站在一边。李光耀觉得形势不妙,跟宪兵说上楼拿衣服和粮食,宪兵竟然同意,于是跟着高长古跑到车仔馆躲了两天。救命之恩,涌泉已报,李光耀的母亲蔡认娘照顾高长古一辈子,直到高长古回福清的家乡终老。

二战前,茂德路75B(75号三楼是间车仔馆,也就是人力车夫居住的估俚间

 

三龙路与王三龙

三龙路(Sam Leong Road)以王三龙命名,第一次大战期间,王三龙捐钱支援英国抗战,殖民地政府以三龙街来纪念他的贡献。王三龙在姓王山(咖啡山的一部分)的坟墓占地最大,约10间三房式组屋。三龙路好些店屋都挂上会馆的招牌,二战前本地的会馆多数支援中国抗日,日据前先将档案销毁,避免被日军秋后算账,因此许多会馆的战前资料都遗失了。

王三龙安排广合源街猪仔馆的苦力开发圣诞岛,1958年政府将圣诞岛卖给澳洲。圣诞岛上最大的族群是华人,虽然官方语言为英文,但岛民多数将粤语和马来话。

三龙路(Sam Leong Road)以王三龙命名

 

新世界游艺场

王三龙去世后,王文达、王平福兄弟继承父亲的遗产。因母亲喜欢看戏,两兄弟决定发展新世界娱乐场,1923年开业的新世界开启新加坡三大世界的先河,早在迪士尼乐园之前已经是个娱乐天堂,日后创建的大世界和快乐世界皆以新世界为模式。日军控制新加坡八个月后,下令三大世界重新开放让华人赌博,不过日本人不准入场。

保留的新世界大门

中日战争爆发,新加坡成立华侨筹赈会,新世界舞厅的舞女通过卖舞票、投标首饰、登台表演等方式筹款,成绩骄人。当时上海的电影红星梁赛珍和梁赛珠姐妹因战乱逃到香港,接受聘请前来新世界舞厅伴舞。新世界舞厅规模庞大,可容纳500对舞伴。梁氏姐妹爱国情切,在新加坡、吉隆坡、槟城参与多项筹赈演出,本来打算乘坐最后一班轮船帝国之星号逃到澳洲,可惜载送妇幼的轮船被逃兵占领,梁氏姐妹只好躲躲藏藏,挨过昭南岁月。

新世界附近的店屋还保留着后楼的螺旋梯,这些楼梯是让挑粪夫使用的。那时候的粪桶承载着夜香,必须每天更换,挑粪夫使用通往屎巷(后巷)的螺旋梯,不至于影响人们的日常作息。日据时期,日本军政府命令联军俘虏当挑粪夫,负起清理夜香的任务。

新世界附近的店屋还保留着后楼的螺旋梯

 

齐智人庙宇

实龙岗路的Srinivasa Perumal Temple19世纪末,由一群齐智人创建。新加坡有至少三座齐智人创建的兴都庙,另外两间在登路和恭锡街。齐智人庙宇最盛大的节庆就是大宝森节了,参与游行的信徒从这里出发,或撑着拱架(Kavati)或顶着牛奶罐,步行4公里到登路。由于日本人信奉神道,日据时期不会随意冒犯宗教场所与墓地。

大宝森节庆祝湿婆(Silva)和雪山女神(Parvati)的幼子战神穆鲁甘(Murugan)的生日,这一天他得到雪山女神馈赠一支长矛,最终消灭魔鬼Soorapadman

 

广惠肇留医院

广惠肇留医院的霍然亭花园鸟语花香,有三棵总理植树:凤凰木(李光耀,1964)、紫叶黄牛木(吴作栋,2019)、越南黄牛木,也叫新加坡樱花树(李显龙,2018)。

霍然亭花园鸟语花香,有三棵总理植树

1941128日凌晨,日军机在新加坡投下炸弹,留医院部分病楼被炸毁,附近店屋亦不可幸免,霍然亭花园就是用来埋葬死难人士的。

留医院的义务司理(CEO)梅启康是广帮筹赈会要员,他交代好工作后前往宪兵部(YMCA)报到,因不肯交出筹赈会名单而被折磨,死后尸骨全无。

 

梅宝坚(BOEY Poh Kin)的口述历史

根据梅宝坚(BOEY Poh Kin)的口述历史,台山出生的梅启康在圣约瑟书院(St Joseph)念书,在家补习中文,继承父亲的当店事业。他对孩子管教严格,要他们饮水思源,爱国,兄弟姐妹间要相亲相爱。他觉得自己中文水平不够,因此送孩子到华校读书。

梅启康在社群中相当活跃,参与筹赈会(广帮总务)、静方女校、海天游艺会、广惠肇留医院等。他担任昙花镜影慈善剧社的名誉会长、精武体育会会长,推动购买会所的工作。在海天游艺会筹款演出粤剧《吕布与貂蝉》中饰演董卓,讲两句,不过不会唱。

梅启康一家住在巴耶利峇的椰园,128日轰炸的时候,最小的女儿刚满月。当时静方女校的校长和教员也搬到椰园,由梅启康负责他们的住宿和粮食。19422月中旬搬到留医院的宿舍避难。

留医院病房被炸弹炸过两次,大炮也打到病房,总共死伤几十人。

大检证时,留医院职员包括梅启康到南生花园问日本军官需要去检证吗?军官听说他们在医院工作,说不用去了。

194236日下午4.30时,宪兵部来到留医院带走梅启康。当天晚上梅启康获释,神情沮丧。他说真的没办法的话准备牺牲,不会跟日本人合作。第二天(37日)上午8.30时,梅启康前往YMCA报到,因迟到被打耳光,他不知道东京时间比新加坡快一个半小时。当时是由海天游艺会的姚九带他去,说没事的,去一去就回来了。一个星期后,梅宝坚的同学在YMCA见过梅启康。

再过一个星期,天长节快到了,八和会馆的郭先生说梅启康被关在中央警署的个人囚房,背后被割了两刀,苍蝇飞来飞去,没有希望了。郭先生被打到半死,只能爬着出来,黄包车夫好心载他回家。

战后调查证实梅启康在中央警署去世后被载走,但不知道埋在哪里。

昭南岛军政府巡视广惠肇留医院,发现全职专业医疗团队只有西医关应鸿、中医蒙景生和一名药剂师,要求留医院增加人手,包括西医黄礼学,中医刘愿可,以及多一名药剂师;女看护从一人增加至8人,采用日夜轮班制。赠医时间则从半天延长到全天,上午10.30时至下午6时。军政府亦要求公众人士打预防针,留医院乃指定中心之一。

 

吴泰昌(NG Tuck Cheong)的口述历史

根据吴泰昌(NG Tuck Cheong)的口述历史,昭南市政局及卫生局长安藤允许广惠肇留医院继续经营,并陆续增聘医生和住院护士,医务人员在医院住宿。留医院得到日本卫生局协助提供物资,药物方面相当充足,粮食方面则靠董事筹款。逃难的人士由留医院收留,路边死去的人士由留医院收尸敛葬。当时没有葬身之地,所以在花园里埋葬。大楼后面的空地也埋下去。兵荒马乱,不可能将人名记录下来。交通解封后,留医院将尸体移至碧山亭。

 

主要参考

1. BOEY Poh Kin oral history, Accession Number 000177, National Archives Singapore

2. NG Tuck Cheong oral history, Accession Number 003435, National Archives Singapore

3. Jalan Besar A HERITAGE TRAIL, NHB 2012

4. Tommy Koh, Should Petain Road be renamed?, The Straits Times, 20 March 2012


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